Dominic McIver Lopes, Vision, Touch, and the Value of Pictures, British Journal of Aesthetics 42 (2002) 187-97
Since blind people can draw and interpret raised-line drawings, depiction is not an essentially visual medium. Neither is the art of pictures an essentially visual art form. Reasons given to evaluate a picture aesthetically may advert to its tactile qualities instead of its visual qualities. In particular, a raised-line picture can be valued for the tactile experience it elicits of the scene it depicts, just as a visual picture is sometimes valued for eliciting a visual experience of its subject. The argument for this claim responds to some objections recently put forward by Robert Hopkins.