Dominic McIver Lopes, Directive Pictures, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (2004) 189-96
Pictures are principally descriptive. Advertising images highlight features of potential purchases; cartoons open portals to scenes in fictional worlds; snapshots in the family photo album remind us of our past selves and landmark events in our personal histories; works of pictorial art express thoughts or feelings about depicted scenes. In addition, pictures serve a directive or action-guiding function that, though not taken into account by theorists, deserves no less attention than their descriptive one. Theories of depiction and the appreciation of pictures stand to benefit by taking "directive pictures" into account, as do theories of representation in general and mental representation in particular.