Dominic McIver Lopes, Understanding Pictures (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996). Reprinted as Comprendre les images: Une théorie de la représentation iconique, trans. Laure Blanc-Benon (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2014)

There is not one but many ways to picture the world - Australian "x-ray" pictures, cubish collages, Amerindian split-style figures, and pictures in two-point perspective each draw attention to different features of what they represent. Understanding Pictures argues that this diversity is the central fact with which a theory of figurative pictures must reckon. Lopes proposes that identifying pictures' subjects is akin to recognizing objects whose appearances have changed over time. He develops a schema for categorizing the different ways pictures represent - the different kinds of meaning they have - and argues that that depiction's epistemic value lies in its representational diversity. He also offers a novel account of the phenomenology of pictorial experience, comparing pictures to visual prostheses like mirrors and binoculars.

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