Dominic McIver Lopes, Art Media and the Sense Modalities: Tactile Pictures, Philosophical Quarterly 47 (1997) 425-40

According to a doctrine in aesthetics, the arts comprise a collection of art media, each characteristically perceived through a different sense modality. This doctrine depends on a doctrine in the theory of perception according to which it is possible to distinguish the senses in certain ways. Thus the view that pictures are essentially visual depends on the view that the content of vision is uniquely perspectival; pictures are visual because they are perspectival. But raised-line drawings made by congenitally blind people cast both views in doubt. I consider the implications of this conclusion for aesthetics and for theories of vision.

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